Italians over the centuries have pioneered laws to control the origins and protect the "particular reputation and worth" of foods under what is known as "denominazione di origine controllata". Food which passes the review board and adheres to the rules is given the initials D.O.C.
DOC pizza is governed by a Neopolitan member of The Association of Pizzaioli Europei called the Association of Vera Pizza Napoletana or "The Association of True Neopolitan Pizza". Their ten rules for pizza are as follows:
1) Pizza dough must be made with flour, water, yeast and salt only. No additives such as oil, fat, sugar or milk are allowed.
2) Pizza must be no greater than 30 cm. (12 inches)
3) Dough should not be heated by the mixing process. (slow electrical mixers or hand mixing only)
4) Dough must be hand stretched, no rollers or presses.
5) The oven must be made of refractory material such as brick or castable refractory and fired with wood.
6) The pizza must be cooked on the floor of the oven. (no pans)
7) Pizza must be cooked at 400 deg. C. or higher. (750 deg. F)
8) Pizza should be well done, fragrant, with the cornicione (border) high and soft. Pizza should not be crusty.
9) Four styles are well defined:
Marinara: tomato, oregano, olive oil, salt
Margherita: tomato, mozzarella, olive oil, garlic, basil, salt
Al Formaggio: parmesean, lard, garlic, basil, salt
Calzone: ricotta, salami, olive oil, salt
10) Variations on the four styles are allowed as long as they are in good taste and do not violate other culinary rules or regulations.